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          數量

          如何快速求解最不利情況數-2020年國家公務員考試行測解題技巧

          http://www.9999gx.com       2019-08-05 15:04      來源:公考通
          【字體: 】              

            在備考行測數量關系時,有很多題目可以通過簡單的運算就能算出結果,但是有的題目對同學們來講是比較難的,這類題目計算量一般不大,但是需要思考的比較清楚,例如極值問題的最不利原則,大家往往都知道這種題型的解法,是用最不利的情況數+1,但是往往大家只想得到運氣最好的那種情況,不易想到運氣最差,也就是最不利的情況,所以接下來公考通就給大家分享,最不利情況數如何快速找到,各位考生著重掌握求解最不利情況數三大步驟。


            前提是先將題目轉換為標準問法,即“至少…才能保證…相同”,然后三步走:


            (1)找品種數,即“保證”后面,“相同”前面的名詞;


            (2)保證n個,往每個品種數里面放n-1個數;


            (3)匯總即為最不利情況數。注:特殊情況(怎么樣都不能夠滿足要求的情況)


            【例1】一場雜技演出,現場觀眾男女老少各有100多人,現在主持人要選擇觀眾上臺配合演出,問至少選擇幾個人才能保證選出來的有3個人性別相同?


            A、3   B、4   C、5   D、6


            參考解析:(1)找品種數,“保證”后,“相同”前的名詞是“性別”,所以品種數是2種(男性或者女性);(2)保證3個性別相同,每個品種下面放(3-1=2)2個人;(3)匯總,所以最不利的情況數為2×2=4人。


            這種情況下,再任選1個人,就能保證有3個人的性別相同,所以結果數為4+1=5,故選擇選項C。


            【例2】有300人到招聘會求職,其中軟件設計有100人,市場營銷有80人,財務管理有70,人力資源管理有50人。那么至少有多少人找到工作,才能保證一定有70人找到的工作專業一樣?


            A、201   B、258   C、268   D、300


            參考解析:(1)找品種數,“保證”后,“一樣”前的名詞是“專業”,此次招聘求職者的專業有“軟件設計”、“市場營銷”、“財務管理”、“人力資源”4種,即品種數為4;(2)保證70個專業相同,每個品種數下放70-1=69人;(3)匯總,注意特殊情況(人力資源一共只有50人,不可能有69人),所以最不利的情況數:69+69+69+50=257人。


            這種情況下,再有1個人找到工作,就能保證有70人找到的工作專業相同,所以結果數為257+1=258,故選擇選項B。


            【例3】一副完整的撲克牌(54張),至少從中抽取幾張才能保證有5張撲克牌的花色相同?


            A、5   B、7   C、17   D、19


            參考解析:(1)找品種數,“保證”后,“相同”前的名詞是“花色”,54張的撲克牌有4種花色(紅桃,黑桃,方塊,梅花),所以品種數為4;(2)保證5張花色相同,每個品種下面放(5-1=4)4張撲克牌;(3)匯總,注意有2張特殊的牌(小王、大王)怎么樣都不可能有5張,所以最不利的情況數:4×4+2=18張。


            這種情況下,再任取一張撲克牌,就能保證有5張的撲克牌的花色相同,所以結果數為18+1=19,故選擇選項D。


            通過三個例題,相信各位考生對最不利情況數解題步驟有了全新思維,多多練習題目,公考通預祝每位考生成公上岸。想刷題提升可以下載公考通APP在線刷題。

           

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