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          2020年國家公務員考試常識積累:什么是白色污染

          http://www.9999gx.com       2019-08-14 09:04      來源:公考通
          【字體: 】              

            2020年國家公務員考試行測常識判斷考點范圍很廣,一般包括政治、法律、經濟、人文、地理、科技、生活等方面,需要小伙伴們長時間不間斷的積累。今天公考通(www.9999gx.com)小編梳理了什么是白色污染?希望考生能夠掌握。


            什么是白色污染?


            白色污染(White Pollution)是對廢塑料污染環境現象的一種形象稱謂。是指用聚苯乙烯、聚丙烯、聚氯乙烯等高分子化合物制成的包裝袋、農用地膜、一次性餐具、塑料瓶等塑料制品使用后被棄置成為固體廢物,由于亂丟亂扔,難于降解處理,給生態環境和景觀造成的污染。

           

          2020年國家公務員考試常識積累:什么是白色污染


            為什么叫白色污染?


            塑料不易降解,影響環境的美觀,所含成分有潛在危害,因塑料用做包裝材料多為白色,所以叫白色污染。


            白色污染有什么危害


            視覺污染:


            在城市、旅游區、水體和道路旁散落的廢舊塑料包裝物給人們的視覺帶來不良刺激,影響城市、風景點的整體美感,破壞市容、景色,由此造成“視覺污染”。


            潛在危害:


            1.侵占土地過多。塑料類垃圾在自然界停留的時間也很長,一般可達200--400年,有的可達500年。


            2. 污染空氣。塑料、紙屑和粉塵隨風飛揚,會造成空氣污染問題。


            3.污染水體。河、海水面上漂著的塑料瓶和飯盒,水面上方樹枝上掛著的塑料袋、面包紙等,不僅造成環境污染,而且如果動物誤食了白色垃圾會傷及健康,甚至會因其在消化道中無法消化而活活餓死。


            4.火災隱患。白色垃圾幾乎都是可燃物,在天然堆放過程中會產生甲烷等可燃氣,遇明火或自燃易引起的火災事故不斷發生,時常造成重大損失。


            5.加大疾病傳染風險。白色垃圾可能成為有害生物的巢穴,它們能為老鼠、鳥類及蚊蠅提供食物、棲息和繁殖的場所,而其中的殘留物也常常是傳染疾病的根源。


            6.難以降解。廢舊塑料包裝物進入環境后,由于其很難降解,造成長期的、深層次的生態環境問題。首先,廢舊塑料包裝物混在土壤中,影響農作物吸收養分和水分,將導致農作物減產;其次若牲畜吃了塑料膜,會引起牲畜的消化道疾病,甚至死亡。


            如何防治白色污染?


            1.加強管理--禁止使用一次性難降解的塑料包裝物。可以在在一定范圍,一定程度上減輕“白色污染”的危害。


            2.強制回收利用--清潔的廢舊塑料包裝物可以重復使用,或重新用于造粒、煉油、制漆、作建筑材料等。


            3.采取以紙代塑--紙張的成分,廢棄后容易被土壤里的微生物分解,并且比起塑料袋,危害要小得多。


            4.采用可降解塑料--在塑料包裝制品的生產過程中加入一定量的添加劑(如淀粉、改性淀粉或其它纖維素、光敏劑、生物降解劑等),使塑料包裝物的穩定性下降,較容易在自然環境中降解。


            5.制定法律標準--塑料制品的合理開發利用,應當從長遠的角度和綜合的因素著手,制定塑料制品的實際應用標準。


            刷題鞏固


            1、通常所說的“白色污染”是指(   )


            A.工廠排出的煙塵


            B.石灰窯產生的粉塵


            C.可卡因、海洛因等毒品


            D.聚乙烯等塑料垃圾


            【解析】D。白色污染是人們對難降解的塑料垃圾(多指塑料袋)污染環境現象的一種形象稱謂。它是指用聚苯乙烯、聚丙烯、聚氯乙烯等高分子化合物制成的各類生活塑料制品使用后被棄置成為固體廢物由于隨意亂丟亂扔,難于降解處理,以致造成城市環境嚴重污染的現象。



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